Chapter 4 Suggested Readings

Callicott, J. B. (ed.). 1987. Companion to A Sand County Almanac. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
Essays by biographers, historians, literary critics, scientists, and philosophers sketch Leopold’s life and the natural history of Wisconsin’s sand counties. They analyze his classic work on conservation values and ethics, interpret his land ethic, and trace its impact on conservation policy and practice.

Callicott, J. B. 1994. Earth’s Insights: A Multicultural Survey of Ecological Ethics. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Global conservation efforts can succeed only if they are consistent with and motivated by the deepest beliefs of people all over the world. Sketched in this book are conservation values and ethics grounded in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and in the world views of selected Pacific, North American, African, and Australian indigenous peoples.

Jamieson, D. (ed.). 2001. A Companion to Environmental Philosophy. Blackwell, Oxford.
A collection of essays on every dimension of environmental philosophy from culturally specific points of view to animal rights to deep ecology to ecofeminism, each written by an expert in each field.

Kellert, S. R. 1996. The Value of Life: Biological Diversity and Human Society. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Kellert identifies the biologically-based but culturally variable value of biodiversity. Kellert’s study incorporates extensive empirical information, based on sociological research, about the value various peoples find in nature.

Leopold, A. 1949. A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There. Oxford University Press, New York.
Leopold is often called a “prophet” because he was a quarter-century ahead of his time in formulating a non-anthropocentric conservation philosophy and environmental ethic. This slender volume of essays is often called “the Bible of the contemporary conservation movement,” and is a “must read” for any serious student of conservation.

Minteer, B. A. and R. E. Manning (eds.). 2003. Reconstructing Conservation: Finding Common Ground. Washington: Island Press.
A collection of essays focused on the history of the philosophy of conservation and on important figures, such as George Perkins Marsh and Gifford Pinchot, in that history, as well as on current practical and conceptual challenges for contemporary conservation philosophy.

Norton, B. G. 1991. Toward Unity Among Environmentalists. Oxford University Press, New York.
The “convergence hypothesis”—the idea that the full spectrum of instrumental and intrinsic values of nature converge on the same environmental policies—is here set out and championed.

Norton, B. G. and M. Ruse (eds.). 2002. Searching for Sustainability: Interdisciplinary Essays in the Philosophy of Conservation Biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
An excellent collection of essays on themes related to conservation and sustainability.

Rolston, H. III. 1994. Conserving Natural Value. Columbia University Press, New York.
A sustained defense of the objective intrinsic value of nature from which he derives our duties and obligations to conserve biodiversity.

Sagoff, M. 1988. The Economy of the Earth: Philosophy, Law, and the Environment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Sagoff’s collected essays provide a critique of methods of monetizing the values of natural environments by neoclassical economists. Some value questions, Sagoff argues, belong in the political realm, not the economic.